Can a covered entity use existing aspects of the HIPAA Privacy Rule to give individuals the right to Opt-In or Opt-Out of electronic health information exchange?

Yes. In particular, the Privacy Rule’s provisions for optional consent and the right to request restrictions can support and facilitate individual choice with respect to the electronic exchange of health information through a networked environment, depending on the purposes of the exchange. The Privacy Rule allows covered entities to obtain the individual’s consent in order to use or disclose protected health information (PHI) for treatment, payment, and health care operations purposes. If a covered entity chooses to obtain consent, the Privacy Rule provides the covered entity with complete flexibility as to the content and manner of obtaining the consent. 45 C.F.R. § 164.506(b). Similarly, the Privacy Rule also provides individuals with a right to request that a covered entity restrict uses or disclosures of PHI about the individual for treatment, payment, or health care operations purposes. See 45 C.F.R. § 164.522(a). While covered entities are not required to agree to an individual’s request for a restriction, they are required to have policies in place by which to accept or deny such requests. Thus, covered entities may use either the Privacy Rule’s provisions for consent or right to request restrictions to facilitate individual choice with respect to electronic health information exchange.

Further, given the Privacy Rule’s flexibility, covered entities could design processes that apply on a more global level (e.g., by requiring an individual’s consent prior to making any disclosure of PHI to or through a health information organization (HIO), or granting restrictions only in which none of the individual’s information is to be exchanged to or through the HIO) or at a more granular level (such as by type of information, potential recipients, or the purposes for which a disclosure may be made). Whatever the policy, such decisions may be implemented on an organization-wide level, or across a HIO’s health information exchange (such as based on the consensus of the health information exchange participants).


Created 12/15/08

Content created by Office for Civil Rights (OCR)
Content last reviewed on July 26, 2013